List of Radio Stations in the Netherlands by Roal Smeet

Internet & Mobile Phones

There are over 10.000 websites on the internet with an own stream allowing their listeners to listen the radio worldwide wherever internet or WI-FI is available. Since the day of today mobile phones and the internet allow you to listen to music that has been published world wide trough one simple iphone application for lets say example FMStation or RadioStation.
Public

Public radio in the Netherlands is provided jointly by a number of broadcasting organizations operating within the framework of the Netherlands Public Broadcasting (NPO).
News bulletins on all stations are provided by NOS.

FM, cable, satellite, DTT and DAB

Radio 1: News, current affairs and sport
Radio 2: Popular music , mostly from the 80s and 90s
3FM: Pop and rock music
Radio 4: Classical music

AM, cable, satellite, DTT and DAB

Radio 5: Easy-listening music and entertainment (0600-1900 weekdays); factual and discussion programmes (weekday evenings); programming for immigrants, philosophy, religion, and readings (weekends).

Cable, satellite, DTT and DAB

Radio 6: jazz and cultural programming
FunX: Urban and world music, aimed at youth market. Available on FM in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht, with some local programming variations.

DAB only

Radio 2 Top2000: music from Radio 2’s annual Top 2000 countdown
24nieuws: looped broadcast of the latest NOS news bulletin

Cable only

Tweede kamerlijn: live relays from the Dutch House of Representatives

International

Radio Netherlands Worldwide: news and features for international audiences outside the Netherlands

Commercial

FM, cable, satellite and DTT

Radio 538: pop and hit music station on 102.1 – 102.7 FM
Sky Radio: non-stop soft pop music on 101.0 – 101.9 FM
Radio Veronica: Pop and Rock from the 80s , 90s and 00s on 103 FM
Q-Music: feel good pop music on 100.4 and 100.7 FM
SLAM!FM: dance and new music
100%NL: music by Dutch bands and artists
BNR Nieuwsradio: news

AM, cable, satellite and DTT

Radio 10 Gold: music from the 70s , 80s and 90s on 828 AM

AM

Radio Maria – religious station on 675 AM
GrootNieuwsRadio – religious station on 1008 AM
Big L 1395 – English language oldies music station on 1395 AM

Cable, satellite and DTT

Arrow Classic Rock: non-stop classic rock
Classic FM: classical music

Cable and satellite

Arrow Jazz FM: non-stop jazz music
538 Juize: Hip-hop and RnB
Kink FM: alternative music

Cable

Radio Decibel: Pop , urban and dance (also on FM in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Alkmaar, Eindhoven and Utrecht)
KXradio : alternative music (founded by Rob Stenders)

Regional

REGIONAL COMMERCIAL NETWORKS

RADIONL: FM in Friesland, North Holland, Groningen, Drenthe, Utrecht, Flevoland, Gelderland, Overijssell, Limburg and cable
Amor FM: 89.8 The Hague, 102.3 Rotterdam
Arrow Classic Rock Noord: FM 98.7 Friesland, 98.5 Groningen, 89.2 Zwolle, Meppel and Noordoostpolder, 87.6 Twente and cable
Fresh FM: FM 95.7 Greater Amsterdam, 103.4 Utrecht, 95.6 Haaglanden, 95.9 Rhine/Haarlemmermeer and cable
Holland FM: FM 97.7 West-Terschelling, 97.9 Tjerkgaast, 104.7 Leeuwarden
Radio Hollandio: FM 88.8 Loon op Zand, 89.3 Vlissingen, 92.4 Westdorpe, 93.9 Roosendaal, 90.1 and 94.1 Den Bosch, 90.3 and 95.5 Eindhoven, 90.5 Helmond, 93.1 Tilburg and cable
Hot Radio Plus: FM 98.0 Twente, 101.9 Achterhoek, 88.7 Stedendriehoek, 88.5 Arnhem/Nijmegen and cable
R@dio Continu: FM 92.4 Groningen, 92.4 Dedemsvaart and cable
Radio Decibel: FM 98.0 Amsterdam, 97.6 Rotterdam, 99.4 The Hague, 98.3 Alkmaar, 93.2 Eindhoven and 98.5 Utrecht
Simone FM: FM 91.3 Groningen, 92.9 West Groningen, 101.7 Drenthe and 93.4 FM Zwolle / Meppel and cable
Waterstad FM: FM 93.2 Friesland, 104.4, 96.9 Groningen, 89.9 Drenthe, 101.8 NO.Polder and cable
Ujala Radio: FM 90.1 Flevoland, 93.3 North Holland and cable

DRENTHE

PUBLIC

Radio Drenthe: FM 90.8, 99.3 and cable, DTT and satellite

LOCAL

RTV Borger-Odoorn: FM 107.5 Borger and cable
RTV Emmen: FM 107.6 Emmen and cable
Radio Hoogeveen: FM 106.8 Hoogeveen and cable
Radio Loco: FM 105.4 Coevorden, 106.3 Oosterhesselen and cable
RTV Assen: FM 107.8 Assen and cable
RTV Meppel: FM 93.0 Meppel and cable
Streekradio: FM 104.8 Zuidwolde and cable
Tynaarlo Lokaal: FM 105.9 Paterswolde, 107.4 Zuidlaren and cable

FLEVOLAND

PUBLIC

Radio Flevoland: FM 89.8 and cable

LOCAL

Radio Lelystad: FM 90.3 Lelystad and cable
StadsRadio Almere: FM 107.8 Almere and cable
Radio Noordoostpolder: FM 105.2 Emmeloord and cable
Urk FM: FM 107.0 Urk and cable

FRIESLAND
PUBLIC

Omrop Fryslân: FM 92.2 and cable, DTT and satellite

REGIONAL

Holland FM: FM 97.9 Tjerkgaast, 104.7 Leeuwarden, 97.7 West Terschelling

LOCAL

Mix 724: FM 103.9 Hoorn, 107.4 Medemblik
Omroep IJsselmond: FM 106.4 Kampen and cable
Omroep Odrie: FM 106.9 Appelscha and cable
Radio Waddenzee: AM 1602 Harlingen (0700-1900)
Radio Seagull: AM 1602 Harlingen (1900-0700) – English language classic rock service

GELDERLAND
PUBLIC

Radio Gelderland

LOCAL

Keizerstad FM: FM 95.5 Arnheim, 94.2 Nijmegen and cable

Achterhoek FM: FM 104.9 Vorden, 106.7, 107.9 Lochem and cable
Berkelland FM: FM 105.3 Eibergen, 106.0 Borculo and cable
RTV Betuwe Radio: FM 105.1 Beusichem, 106.2 Deil and cable
BFM: FM 106.1 Zutphen and cable
Dijkland FM: FM 106.6 Zaltbommel

GRONINGEN
PUBLIC

Radio Noord: FM 97.5 Groningen

LOCAL

OOG Radio: FM 106.6 Groningen and cable
Omreop Menterwolde: FM 107.6 Menterwolde and cable
Radio Compagnie: FM 105.2 Hoogezand and cable
Radio Westerkwartier: FM 105.3 Marum
RTV S: FM 105.3 Stadskanaal and cable
Radio Parkstad: FM 106.9 Veendam and cable
Radio Westerwolde: FM 106.5 Ter Apel, 106.6 Bellingwolde, 107.0 Vlagtwedde, 107.3 Pekela and cable
Dollard Radio: FM 105.8 Winschoten and cable

LIMBURG
PUBLIC

L1 Radio: FM 95.3 Hulsberg, 100.3 Roermond and cable

NORTH BRABANT
PUBLIC

Omroep Brabant

LOCAL

Boschtion FM: FM 95.2 s’-Hertogenbosch and cable
Radio 8FM: FM 89.2 Breda, 103.6 Tilburg, 97.4 Den Bosch, 89.3 Eindhoven, 95.2 Weert and cable
Radio Mexico: FM 106.1 ‘s-Hertogenbosch
Royaal FM: FM 93.6 Eindhoven

NORTH HOLLAND
PUBLIC

Radio Noord-Holland: FM 88.9 Amsterdam, 88.7 Hilversum, 93.9 Alkmaar and cable

LOCAL

SALTO Stads FM: FM 106.8 Amsterdam and cable
SALTO Wereld FM: FM 99.4 Amsterdam and cable
SALTO Caribbean FM: FM 107.9 Amsterdam and cable
SALTO Razo: FM 105.2 Amsterdam and cable

MEER Radio: FM 105.5, 106.6 Haarlemmermeer and cable

Schagen FM: FM 107.7 Schagen and cable
Wild FM: FM 93.6 Amsterdam, 96.3 Alkmaar, 97.3 Haarlemmermeer, 97.4 Purmerend

OVERIJSSEL
PUBLIC

Radio Oost: FM 99.4 North West Overijssel, 97.9 Deventer, 95.6 Zuid Salland, 89.4 Twente and cable, DTT and satellite

SOUTH HOLLAND
PUBLIC

Radio West
Radio Rijnmond

LOCAL

Sleutelstad FM: FM 93.7 Leyden and cable

UTRECHT
PUBLIC

Radio M Utrecht

LOCAL

Bingo FM: FM 107.7 Utrecht, 107.9 Amersfoort and cable

ZEELAND
PUBLIC

Omroep Zeeland

Web Radio

Many public and commercial radio stations broadcast a number of themed, online sister stations. Most stations broadcast non-stop music with NOS or ANP news bulletins on the hour.

PUBLIC

Radio 2
Radio 2 Top 2000
Radio 2 In Concert
Radio 2 Liedkunst
Sterren.nl

3FM
3FM Alternative
3FM Live
3FM Serious Talent
3FM Mega Top 50
xnoizz

Radio 4
AVRO Back to the Old School
AVRO Baroque around the Clock
AVRO Easy Listening
AVRO Klassiek Film
AVRO Het beste van het beste
AVRO Radio Festival Classique
AVRO Steenen Tijdperk Fifties
AVRO Steenen Tijdperk Sixties
AVRO Ziel en Zaligheid
AVRO Operette IKON Musica Religiosa
IKON Orgelradio
Radio 4 Eigentjids
Radio 4 Jong Klassiek

Radio 5
Radio 5 Nostalgia

Radio 6
Radio 6 Jazz
Radio 6 Jazz Jong
Radio 6 Grooves
Radio 6 Blues
Radio 6 World
Radio 6 Outer Limits
Radio 6 Metropole Orkest

FunX
FunX Slow Jamz
FunX Reggae
FunX Hip-Hop
FunX Latin
FunX Arab
FunX Dance
FunX Fusion

Concertzender
Classical Music
Early Music
Jazz
World Music
Interface
Dutch Music Media
Contemporary Music
Ambient
Gregorian Chant
Orient Express
Hard Bop
Pop
Young Professionals
Folk It!

COMMERCIAL

Radio 538
538 Dancedepartment
538 Hitzone
538 Juize
538 Non Stop 40
538 Party Radio
53L8

Sky Radio
Sky Radio Love Songs
Sky Radio NL
Sky Radio Dance Classics (Jan-Jun)
Sky Radio Summer Hits (Jun-Oct)
Sky Radio The Christmas Station (Oct-Dec)

Radio Veronica
Veronica Hitradio
Veronica Rock Radio
Veronica Top 1000 Allertijden

Radio 10 Gold
Radio 10 Gold Disco
Radio 10 Gold Top 4000
Radio 10 Gold 60s and 70s
Radio 10 Gold 80s
Radio 10 Gold 90s

Arrow
Arrow Caz

Pinguin Radio

KX Radio
KX World
KX Classikx
KX Red Hot
Premium Radio

Two subscription cable radio services are available in the Netherlands, Music Choice and XLnt Radio.
XLnt Radio

XLnt Radio offers 52 non-stop music channels:

XLnt Kiddo FM
XLnt Hip Hop
XLnt R&B
XLnt Trance
XLnt Dance
XLnt Hits
XLnt Party
XLnt Lounge
XLnt Chill Out
XLnt Today’s Pop
XLnt Nederpop
XLnt Arabian Nights
XLnt Turk
XLnt Alternative Rock
XLnt Hard Rock
XLnt Rock
XLnt New Age
XLnt Easy Listening
XLnt Classic Rock
XLnt Piratenhits
XLnt Salsa
XLnt Dance Classics
XLnt Comedy
XLnt Country
XLnt Love Songs
XLnt Motown
XLnt Reggae
XLnt Italia
XLnt France
XLnt Espana
XLnt Blues
XLnt Oldies
XLnt Nederpop Gold
XLnt Schlager
XLnt Rock N Roll
XLnt Classical
XLnt Jazz
XLnt Classic Jazz
XLnt NL Luisterlied
XLnt Nostalgie
XLnt Kleuterliedjes
XLnt Skihut
XLnt JackFM
XLnt Film
XLnt Relipop
XLnt Christmas
XLnt Musical
XLnt Opera
XLnt Operette
XLnt Crooners
XLnt Fanfare
XLnt Etalagekanaal
Music Choice

Music Choice offers a range of non-stop music channels on the Ziggo and UPC cable networks:

60s
70s
80er – Germany
80s
90er – Germany
90s
2000s
All Day Party
Arabic
The Alternative – Germany
The Alternative – UK
Bass, Breaks & Beats
Blues
Bollywood Hits
Carnival – Germany
Chansons
Chillout
Classic R’n’B & Soul
Classic Rock
Classical Calm
Classical Greats
Classical India
Classical Orchestral
Cocktail Lounge
Cool Jazz
Country
Dancefloor Fillers
Drive
East African Gospel
Freedom
Freedom – Sweden
Groove (Disco & Funk)
Harder Than Hell
Hindi Gold
Hip Hop
Indie Classics
Jazz Classics
Kids
Kids – Germany
New Age
Punjabi
Reggae
Revival (60s & 70s)
Revival (60s & 70s)- Germany
Rewind (80s & 90s)
Rewind (80s & 90s) – Germany
Rewind (80s & 90s)- Sweden
Rock Anthems
Rock Anthems – Germany
Rock’n’Roll
South Africa Gospel
South Africa Modern
South Africa Traditional
Schlager
Schlager – Sweden
Silk (Love Songs)
Sounds of South India
Swiss Hits
Total Hits – Belgium (a.k.a. Belpop)
Total Hits – France
Total Hits – Germany
Total Hits – Germany
Total Hits – Italy
Total Hits – East Africa
Total Hits – Netherlands
Total Hits – Nordic
Total Hits – Spain
Total Hits – Sweden
Total Hits – UK
Türk Müzigi
Urban
Urban – Germany
Volksmusik
World Carnival
Xmas / New Years
Xmas / New Years Germany

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Roal Smeet – Radio Stations in Belgium

Radio 1
Radio 1 Classics (digital only, starting on January 27, 2009)
Nieuws+ (digital only)
Sporza
Radio 2
Radio 2 Topcollectie XL’ (digital only, starting on January 27, 2009)
Klara
Klara continuo (digital only)
Klara Jazz (digital only, starting on January 27, 2009)
Studio Brussel
StuBru Alternative Rock’ (digital only, starting on January 27, 2009)
MNM
MNM Hits (digital only)
RVi
La Première
Vivacité
Classic21
PureFM
Musiq’3
RTBF International
BRF 1
BRF 2
BRF-DLF
100.5 Das Hitradio
Q-Music
JOE fm
Nostalgie
EXQI FM
Top Radio
Club FM
Hit FM
Radio Centraal
Radio Scorpio
Radio Katanga
Bel RTL
Radio Contact
Fun Radio
BXL
Mint
Nostalgie
NRJ
Vibration (Brussels)
Antipode (Brabant Wallon)
YouFM (Mons)
Hit Radio (Namur)
Fréquence Eghezée (Eghezée, Province de Namur)
Radio quartz (Sombreffe, Province de Namur)
48FM (Liège)

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Radio Stations in Belarus

FM Stations
OIRT

AvtoRadio – 67.70 MHz (Closed in 2011)
Radio BA International (http://radioba.by) – 68.84 MHz
Channel “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 70.43 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 71.33 MHz
Radius FM (http://radiusfm.by) – 72.11 MHz
Radio “Stolitsa” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiostol.asp) – 72.89 MHz

CCIR

Radio Minsk (http://radiominsk.by) – 92.4 MHz
Radio Melodii Veka (http://melodiiveka.by) – 96.2 MHz
Minskaya Volna (http://mvolna.by) – 97.4 MHz
Novoe Radio (http://novoeradio.by) – 98.4 MHz
Russian Radio (http://rusradio.by) – 98.9 MHz
Radio Unistar (http://unistar.by) – 99.5 MHz
Hit FM (http://hitfm-by.ru) – 100.4 MHz
Pilot FM (http://pilotfm.com) – 101.2 MHz
Radio ONT (http://radio.ont.by) – 101.7 MHz
Radio Roks (http://roks.com) – 102.1 MHz
Channel “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 102.9 MHz
Radius FM (http://radiusfm.by) – 103.7 MHz
Radio BA International (http://radioba.by) – 104.6 MHz
AvtoRadio – 105.1 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 106.2 MHz
Radio “Mir” (http://radiomir.by) – 107.1 MHz
Alpha Radio (http://alpha.by) – 107.9 MHz

Brest
FM Stations
OIRT

Radio Brest (http://trkbrest.by) – 69.68 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 70.91 MHz
Channel “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 71.9 MHz
Radio “Stolitsa” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiostol.asp) – 72.47 MHz

CCIR

Radio BIS (Poland) – 88.3 MHz
Channel “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 88.5 MHz
Radio TROJKA (Poland) – 90.5 MHz
Radio RMF FM (Poland) – 91.9 MHz
Radio Station “Belarus” (http://radiobelarus.tvr.by/eng/default.asp) – 96.4 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 100.0 MHz
Radio Minsk (http://radiominsk.by) – 100.4 MHz
Alpha Radio (http://alpha.by) – 100.8 MHz
Radio Roks (http://roks.com) – 101.2 MHz
Radio PODLASIE (Poland) – 101.7 MHz
Radio Unistar (http://unistar.by) – 102.3 MHz
Pilot FM – 102.9 MHz
Radio RDC (Poland) – 103.4 MHz
Radius FM (http://radiusfm.by) – 103.7 MHz
Radio Brest (http://trkbrest.by) – 104.8 MHz
Radio Zet (Poland) – 105.4 MHz
Radio BA International (http://radioba.by) – 106.2 MHz
Radio “Mir” (http://radiomir.by) – 106.6 MHz
Radio Maryja (Poland) – 107.7 MHz

Vitsebsk
FM Stations
OIRT

Radio “Stolitsa” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiostol.asp) – 72.26 MHz

CCIR

Radio Vitebsk (http://radio.vitebsk.by) – 91.2 MHz
Channel “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 99.3 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 100.5 MHz
Radio “Mir” (http://radiomir.by) – 101.8 MHz
Radio Roks (http://roks.com) – 103.0 MHz
Retro FM (http://retrofm.ru) – 104.6 MHz
Radius FM (http://radiusfm.by) – 105.5 MHz
Radio Minsk (http://radiominsk.by) – 106.4 MHz
Alpha Radio (http://alpha.by) – 107.6 MHz

Homiel
FM Stations
OIRT

Radio “Stolitsa” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiostol.asp) – 66.20 MHz
Gomel FM (http://radiogomelfm.by) – ??.? MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – ??.? MHz
Kanal “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – ??.? MHz

CCIR

Radio BA International (http://radioba.by) – 91.0 MHz
Kanal “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 91.5 MHz
Radius FM (http://radiusfm.by) – 100.1 MHz
Gomel FM (http://radiogomelfm.by) – 101.3 MHz
Radio Roks (http://roks.com) – 102.6 MHz
Pilot FM (http://pilotfm.com) – 104.4 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 105.1 MHz
Radio Minsk (http://radiominsk.by) – 105.6 MHz
Novoe Radio (http://novoeradio.by) – 106.7 MHz
Gomelskoe gorodskoe radio “107.4 FM” (http://gomelradio.by) – 107.4 MHz

Hrodna
FM Stations
OIRT

Radio “Stolitsa” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiostol.asp) – 68.90 MHz

CCIR

Kanal “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 95.0 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 95.7 MHz
Radio Station “Belarus” (http://radiobelarus.tvr.by/eng/default.asp) – 96.9 MHz
Alpha Radio (http://alpha.by) – 98.4 MHz
Radius FM (http://radiusfm.by) – 100.5 MHz
Radio Grodno (http://radio.grodno.by) – 101.2 MHz
Radio BA International (http://radioba.by) – 103.0 MHz
Radio “Mir” (http://radiomir.by) – 104.2 MHz
Radio Roks (http://roks.com) – 106.9 MHz

Mahilyow
FM Stations
OIRT

Radio “Stolitsa” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiostol.asp) – 71.18 MHz

CCIR

Pilot FM (http://pilotfm.com) – 93.2 MHz
Novoe Radio (http://novoeradio.by) – 95.7 MHz
Radio Mogilev (http://tvrmogilev.by) – 96.4 MHz
Radio Minsk (http://radiominsk.by) – 98.1 MHz
Russian Radio (http://www.russradio.by) – 98.6 MHz
Kanal “Culture” (http://tvr.by/eng/radiocult.asp) – 99.1 MHz
Radius FM (http://radiusfm.by) – 100.9 MHz
Radio Roks (http://roks.com) – 103.4 MHz
Radio BA International (http://radioba.by) – 104.5 MHz
1st Channel of Belarusian Radio (http://tvr.by/eng/radio1.asp) – 105.9 MHz
Radio “Mir” (http://radiomir.by) – 107.8 MHz

Other

Radio Svaboda (http://svaboda.org) – AM Station
European Radio for Belarus (http://euroradio.by) – AM Station
Radio Aplus (http://radio.aplus.by) – Internet
Netradio (http://netradio.by) – Internet
Roal Smeet

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Radio Stations in Austria and Liechtenstein – Roal Smeet

Austria

ORF – Österreichischer Rundfunk – public broadcasting company
OE1
OE2
Radio Burgenland
Radio Kärnten
Radio Niederösterreich
Radio Oberösterreich
Radio Salzburg
Radio Steiermark
Radio Tirol
Radio Vorarlberg
Radio Wien
OE3
FM4
Antenne Österreich GmbH (Commercial Network, a part of Wolfgang Fellner’s “Fellner Medien GmbH”)
Antenne Salzburg
Antenne Tirol (Innsbruck)
Antenne Tirol (Unterland)
Antenne Wien 102.5
Radio Arabella GmbH (commercial Network)
Radio Arabella Mostviertel (lower Austria)
Radio Arabella Salzburg 102,5
Radio Arabella Tulln 99,4 (lower Austria)
Radio Arabella Wien 92,9 (Vienna)
88.6 Der Supermix für Wien
A 1
Antenne Kärnten
Antenne Steiermark
Antenne Vorarlberg
Ausserferner Welle
Campusradio 94.4
Energy 104,2
Gym Radio
Hit FM Burgenland
Hit FM Mostviertel
Hit FM St. Pölten
Hit FM Waldviertel
Krone Hit Bregenz
Krone Hit Unterkärnten
KRONEHIT
Life Radio (Oberösterreich)
Life Radio (Tirol)
MM89,6 – Das Musikradio
Njoy Radio
Oberländer WELLE
PartyFM
RADIO-SALZACHTAL
Radio Alpina
Radio Arabella Bregenz
Radio Arabella Linz
Radio Agora
Radio freequenns
Radio Grün Weiss
Radio Harmonie (Ennstal)
Radio Harmonie (Spittal)
Radio Harmonie (Wörthersee)
Radio Maria
Radio Osttirol
Radio Real
Radio Salzkammergut
Radio Stephansdom
Radio West
Radius 106,6
Rock Radio
Soundportal Graz
Soundportal Hartberg
TruckRadio (Spittal)
U1 Radio Unterland
WELLE 1 Salzburg 106,2
WELLE 1 Linz 91,8
WELLE 1 Wels 98,3
WELLE 1 Steyr 102,6
WELLE 1 Kirchdorf 107,5
WELLE 1 Kremsmünster 106,6
WELLE 1 Innsbruck 92,9
Community Stations
Freies Radio Freistadt
Freirad
Proton – das freie Radio
Radio FRO
Radio Helsinki
Radio Orange
Radiofabrik

Liechtenstein

Radio Liechtenstein

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Radio Stations in Albania

Radio Tirana 1
Radio Tirana 2
Radio Tirana 3 (international service)
Top Albania Radio
Plus 2 Radio (+2 Radio)

Local stations

Radio Hit FM
City Radio Albania
Love Radio
Boom Boom Radio
Club FM
My Music Radio
Radio 7 (Albania)[3]
Radio +3
Radio Alfa dhe Omega
Radio ALSAT
Radio DJ
Radio Eurostar
Radio 1
Radio Klan
Radio Fieri
Radio Magic star
Radio Saranda
Radio Val’ e Kaltër
Radio Stacioni
Radio Ngjallja
Radio Top gold
Radio Jug
Radio ABC
Radio Alpo
Radio Rash
Radio Scorpion
Radio E parë
Radio Emanuel
Radio Prespa
Radio Travel
Radio Shqip
Radio Super Star
Radio Euro Star
Radio NRG
Radio Kontakt
Radio Nacional
Radio Klea
Radio Alfa
Radio Sport
Radio Star
Radio Club Alsion
Radio Egnatia
Radio 6
Radio X
Radio Logos
Eagle Radio
Radio Jehona
Radio Spartak SM
Radio Ora News
Radio Kiss FM
Radio Idea
Radio Lushnja
Greta Music Radio
Radio ABC News
Radio Epiri
Radio Dimension
Radio Sprint
Radio Univers
Radio Number One
Radio Vesa
Radio Clazz
Radio Albania FM

Internet Radio

Radio Hit Fm
Radioshqip.org
Divan Radio
Top Net Radio
Tirana Jazz Radio
People Radio
NO FM Radio

“New Planet”RADIO

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Danish-language radio stations

DR (Danmarks Radio)
Analogue Radiostations

DR P1
DR P2
DR P3
DR P4

DAB Radiostations

DR P1
DR P2
DR P3
DR P4 Danmark
DR Rock
DR Jazz
DR Klasisk
DR Nyheder
DR P5000
DR Dansktop
DR Oline
DR Hit
DR Politik
DR Pop DK
DR Boogieradio

Internet Radiostations

DR P1
DR P2
DR P3
DR P4 Danmark
DR P4 Bornholm
DR P4 Fyn
DR P4 Trekanten
DR P4 København
DR P4 Midt & Vest
DR P4 Nordjylland
DR P4 Sjælland
DR P4 Syd
DR P4 Østjylland
DR Allegro
DR Country
DR Evergreen
DR Hit
DR MGP
DR Oline
DR Barometer
DR Boogieradio
DR Dansktop
DR Electronica
DR Folk
DR Hip Hop
DR Jazz
DR Klassisk
DR Modern Rock
DR New Jazz
DR P5000
DR Pop DK
DR R&B
DR Rock
DR Soft
DR Spillemand
DR World
RadioBalkan.net

SBS Broadcasting Group

The Voice Denmark
NOVA fm (Denmark)
Radio City (Denmark)

Talpa Radio International

Radio 100FM

Local Radiostations

VLR
HNR
Radio 3

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Independent UK record labels

Independent UK record labels

0-9

4AD

A

Andmoresound
Angular Recording Corporation
Audio Antihero
Audiobulb Records
AudioPorn Records

B

Bad Sekta
Barely Breaking Even
Beatroute Records
Beggars Banquet Records
Bella Union
Big Scary Monsters Recording Company
Black Crow Records
Blast First
Bloody Chamber Music
Blow Up Records
Blue Dog Records
Blue Room Released
Blue Horizon
Boy Better Know
Burning Shed

C

Candid Records
Chemikal Underground
Cherry Red
Chocolate Fireguard Records
Cinoci Records
Citinite
Clay Records
Cooking Vinyl
Convivium Records
Crass Records
Creation Records
Creeping Bent
Criminal Records

D

Damaged Goods Records
Damnably
Dance to the Radio
Dancing Turtle Records
Deltasonic
Deviant Sound Records
Discipline Music
Dick Bros Record Company
Din Of Ecstasy Records
Document Records
Dolph Hamster Music
Domino Recording Company
Dreamboat Records
Drowned in Sound

E

Electric Honey
Erased Tapes Records
Exercise1 Records

F

Factory Records
Falling A Records
Fällt
Fanfare Records
Fantastic Plastic Records
Fast Product
Fat Cat Records
Fat City Recordings
Fellside Records
Fiddler Records
Field Records
Fierce Panda Records
Flicknife Records
FM Records
FM-Revolver Records
Fort North Entertainment
Freshly Squeezed Music
Future Legend Records

G

Glass Records
Go! Discs Records
Grand Central Records
Gravity DIP Records
Gut Records
Gwarn Music

H

Heaven Records
Heavenly Recordings
Heavy Metal Records
Heist Or Hit Records
Heron Recordings
Holy Roar Records
Hospital Records
How Does It Feel To Be Loved?
Hyperdub
Hyperion Records

I

Ill Flava Records
Imaginary Records
Incus Records
I-innovate (UK)
Independiente Records
Irregular Records
Irritant Records

J

Jeepster Records
Junior Aspirin Records

K

Kitchenware Records
Kscope

L

LAB Records
Launchpad Records
Leader Records
Lifted Music
The Leaf Label
Lex Records
Lojinx
Loose Music
Low Life Records
LO-MAX Records

M

Market Square Records
Marrakesh Records
Memphis Industries
Mo’ Wax
Moshi Moshi
Motile
Mr Bongo Records
My Dad Recordings
My Kung Fu
Mi7 records

N

Neat Records
Newmemorabilia Records
Ninja Tune
No Masters
Nude Records

O

O Rosa Records
One Little Indian Records
Or Records
Outta Sight Records
Ozit Records

P

Pantone Music
Peacefrog Records
Peaceville Records
People In The Sky
Perfecto Records
Pickled Egg Records
Placid Casual
Postcard Records

Q
R

Real World Records
Rebel Alliance Recordings
Recommended Records
Red Girl Records
Regent Records (United Kingdom)
Regular Beat Recording Co.
Revolver Records (Revolver Music Ltd)
Rise Above Records
Robot Needs Home
Rock Action Records
Rockville Records
Ron Johnson Records
Rough Trade Records
Royal Bass Records
Ruptured Ambitions Records

S

Sarah Records
Sain
See Monkey Do Monkey
Setanta Records
Shinkansen Records
Silkroute Records Ltd
Sink and Stove Records
Silvertone Records
Skam Records
Skint Records
Sleep It Off Records
Smalltown America
Small Wonder Records
Snakes & Ladders Records
Snapper Music
Some Bizzare Records
Sonic Vista Music
Sons Ltd.
Southern Fried Records
Southern Records
Steel Tiger Records
Street Soul Productions
Super Records
Supernal Records
Stolen Recordings
Stutter Records Ltd

T

Tempa Records
Tigertrap Records
Too Pure
Topic Records
Touch Music
Transatlantic Records
Transgressive Records
Trash Aesthetics
Triumph Records (UK)
Trepan Records
Trend Records
TRL Music
Tru Thoughts
Truck Records
Tumi Music
Twentythree Records

U

Uncharted audio
UnderdogElite Records

V

V Records
Valentine Records
The Village Thing
The Viper Label
VIP Records
Visible Noise

W

Wall of Sound (record label)
Warp Records
Wichita Recordings
Willkommen Records
Wiiija
World Live Music & Distribution

X

XL Recordings
Xtra Mile Recordings

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Roal Smeet Record Label

A record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Most commonly, a record label is the company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing and promotion, and enforcement of copyright protection of sound recordings and music videos; conducts talent scouting and development of new artists (“artists and repertoire” or “A&R”); and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term “record label” derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer’s name, along with other information.

Within the music industry; most recording artists have become increasingly reliant upon record labels to broaden their consumer base, market their albums, and be both promoted and heard on mp3, radio, etc. and of course television also, with publicists that assist performers in positive media reports to market their merchandise, and make it available via stores and other media outlets. The Internet has increasingly been a way that some artists avoid costs and gain new audiences, as well as the use of videos in some cases, to sell their products.

Record labels may be small, localized, and “independent” (“indie”), or they may be part of a large international media group, or somewhere in between. The largest four record labels are called “major labels”. A “sublabel” is a label that is part of a larger record company, but it trades under a different name.

Major labels 1988–1998 (Big Six)

Warner Music Group
EMI
Sony Music (known as CBS Records until January 1991 then known as Sony Music thereafter)
BMG Music
Universal Music Group
Polygram

Major labels 1998–2004 (Big Five)

Warner Music Group
EMI
Sony Music
BMG Music
Universal Music Group (Polygram absorbed into UMG)

Major labels 2004–2008 (Big Four)

Warner Music Group
EMI
Sony BMG (Sony and BMG joint-venture)
Universal Music Group

Major labels 2008–2011 (Big Four)

Sony Music Entertainment
EMI Group
Warner Music Group
Universal Music Group

Major labels since late 2011, if approved (Big Three)

Sony Music Entertainment
Warner Music Group
Universal Music Group

Record labels are often under the control of a corporate umbrella organization called a “music group”. A music group is typically owned by an international conglomerate “holding company”, which often has non-music divisions as well. A music group controls and consists of music publishing companies, record (sound recording) manufacturers, record distributors, and record labels. As of 2005, the “big four” music groups control about 70% of the world music market, and about 80% of the United States music market. Record companies (manufacturers, distributors, and labels) may also comprise a “record group” which is, in turn, controlled by a music group. The constituent companies in a music group or record group are sometimes marketed as being “divisions” of the group.

Record companies and music publishers that are not under the control of the big three are generally considered to be independent (indie), even if they are large corporations with complex structures. The term indie label is sometimes used to refer to only those independent labels that adhere to an independent criteria of corporate structure and size, and some consider an indie label to be almost any label that releases non-mainstream music, regardless of its corporate structure.

Music collectors often use the term sublabel to refer to either an imprint or a subordinate label company (such as those within a group). For example, in the 1980s and 1990s, “4th & B’way” was a trademarked brand owned by Island Records Ltd. in the UK and by a subordinate branch, Island Records, Inc., in the United States. The center label on a 4th & Broadway record marketed in the US would typically bear a 4th & B’way logo and would state in the fine print, “4th & B’way™, an Island Records, Inc. company”. Collectors discussing labels as brands would say that 4th & B’way is a sublabel or imprint of just “Island” or “Island Records”. Similarly, collectors who choose to treat corporations and trademarks as equivalent might say 4th & B’way is an imprint and/or sublabel of both Island Records, Ltd. and that company’s sublabel, Island Records, Inc. However, such definitions are complicated by the corporate mergers that occurred in 1989 (when Island was sold to PolyGram) and 1998 (when PolyGram merged with Universal). Island remained registered as corporations in both the US and UK, but control of its brands changed hands multiple times as new companies were formed, diminishing the corporation’s distinction as the “parent” of any sublabels.

Vanity labels are labels that bear an imprint that gives the impression of an artist’s ownership or control, but in fact represent a standard artist/label relationship. In such an arrangement, the artist will control nothing more than the usage of the name on the label, but may enjoy a greater say in the packaging of his or her work. An example of such a label is the Neutron label owned by ABC while at Phonogram in Great Britain. At one point artist Lizzie Tear (under contract with ABC themselves) appeared on the imprint, but it was devoted almost entirely to ABC’s offerings and is still used for their re-releases (though Phonogram owns the masters of all the work issued on the label).

However, not all labels dedicated to particular artists are completely superficial in origin. Many artists, early in their careers, create their own labels which are later bought out by a bigger company. If this is the case it can sometimes give the artist greater freedom than if they were signed directly to the big label. There are many examples of this kind of label, such as Nothing Records, owned by Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails; and Morning Records, owned by The Cooper Temple Clause, who were releasing EPs for years before the company was bought by RCA.

A label typically enters into an exclusive recording contract with an artist to market the artist’s recordings in return for royalties on the selling price of the recordings. Contracts may extend over short or long durations, and may or may not refer to specific recordings. Established, successful artists tend to be able to renegotiate their contracts to get terms more favorable to them, but Prince’s much-publicized 1994–1996 feud with Warner Bros. provides a strong counterexample, as does Roger McGuinn’s claim, made in July 2000 before a US Senate committee, that The Byrds never received any of the royalties they had been promised for their biggest hits, “Mr. Tambourine Man” and “Turn, Turn, Turn”.

A contract either provides for the artist to deliver completed recordings to the label, or for the label to undertake the recording with the artist. For artists without a recording history, the label is often involved in selecting producers, recording studios, additional musicians, and songs to be recorded, and may supervise the output of recording sessions. For established artists, a label is usually less involved in the recording process.

The relationship between record labels and artists can be a difficult one. Many artists have had albums altered or censored in some way by the labels before they are released—songs being edited, artwork or titles being changed, etc. Record labels generally do this because they believe that the album will sell better if the changes are made. Often the record label’s decisions are prudent ones from a commercial perspective, but this typically frustrates the artist who feels that their artwork is being diminished or misrepresented by such actions.

In the early days of the recording industry, record labels were absolutely necessary for the success of any artist. The first goal of any new artist or band was to get signed to a contract as soon as possible. In the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, many artists were so desperate to sign a contract with a record company that they usually ended up signing a bad contract, typically giving away the rights to their music in the process. To this day, standard recording contracts define record labels as the rightsholders of the music that the contracts cover. Entertainment lawyers can be used by some to look over any contract before it is signed.

Through the advances of the Internet the role of labels is becoming increasingly diminished, as artists are able to freely distribute their own material through web radio, peer to peer file sharing such as BitTorrent, and other services, for little or no cost. Bigger artists such as Nine Inch Nails have announced an end to their major label contracts, citing that the uncooperative nature of the recording industry with these new trends are hurting musicians and the industry as a whole, and most of all hurting the fans. Radiohead also cited similar motives with the end of their contract with EMI when their album In Rainbows was released as a “pay what you want” sales model as an online download.

With the advancement of the computer and technology like internet, leading to an increase in file sharing and direct-to-fan digital distribution, combined with music sales plummeting in recent years, labels and organizations have had to change their strategies and the way they work with artists. New types of deals are being made with artists called “multiple rights” or “360” deals with artists. These types of pacts give labels rights and percentages to artist’s touring, merchandising, and endorsements. In exchange for these rights, labels usually give higher advancement payments to artists, have more patience with artist development, and higher percentages in CD sales. These 360 style deals are most effective when the artist is established and has a loyal fan base. For that reason, labels now have to be more relaxed with the development of artists because longevity is the key to these types of pacts. Several artists such as Paramore, Maino, and even Madonna have signed such types of deals.

A look at an actual 360 deal offered by Atlantic Records to an artist shows a variation of the structure. Atlantic’s document offers a conventional cash advance to sign the artist, who would receive a royalty for sales after expenses were recouped. With the release of the artist’s first album, however, the label has an option to pay an additional $200,000 in exchange for 30 percent of the net income from all touring, merchandise, endorsements and fan-club fees. Atlantic would also have the right to approve the act’s tour schedule, and the salaries of certain tour and merchandise sales employees hired by the artist. But the label also offers the artist a 30 percent cut of the label’s album profits —if any—which represents an improvement from the typical industry royalty of 15 percent.

In the 1970s and 1980s, there was a phase of consolidation in the record industry that led to almost all major labels being owned by a very few multinational companies. CDs still flow through a handful of sources, with the majority of the sales going through the “big four” record labels.

In the 1990s, as a result of the widespread use of home studios, consumer recording technology, and the Internet, independent labels began to become more commonplace. Independent labels are often artist-owned (although not always), with a stated intent often being to control the quality of the artist’s output. Independent labels usually do not enjoy the resources available to the “big four” and as such will often lag behind them in market shares. Often independent artists manage a return by recording for a much smaller production cost of a typical big label release. Sometimes they are able to recoup their initial advance even with much lower sales numbers.

On occasion, established artists, once their record contract has finished, move to an independent label. This often gives the combined advantage of name recognition and more control over one’s music along with a larger portion of royalty profits. Artists such as Dolly Parton, Aimee Mann, Prince, Public Enemy, BKBravo (Kua and Rafi), among others, have gone this route. Historically, companies started in this manner have been re-absorbed into the major labels (two examples are Frank Sinatra’s Reprise Records, which has been owned by Warner Music for some time now, and Herb Alpert’s A&M Records, now owned by Universal Music Group). Similarly, Madonna’s Maverick Records (started by Madonna with her manager and another partner) was to come under control of Warner Music when Madonna divested herself of controlling shares in the company.

There are many independent labels; folk singer Ani DiFranco’s Righteous Babe Records is often cited as an ideal example. The singer turned down lucrative contracts from several top-name labels in order to establish her own New York-based company. Constant touring resulted in noteworthy success for an act without significant major funding. Ani and others from the company have spoken on several occasions about their business model in hopes of encouraging others.

Some independent labels become successful enough that major record companies negotiate contracts to either distribute music for the label or in some cases, purchase the label completely.

On the punk rock scene, the DIY ethic encourages bands to self-publish and self-distribute. This approach has been around since the early 1980s, in an attempt to stay “true” to the punk ideals of doing it yourself and not “selling out” to corporate profits and control. Such labels have a reputation for being fiercely uncompromising and especially unwilling to cooperate with the big record labels at all. One of the most notable and influential labels of the Do-It-Yourself attitude was SST Records, created by the band Black Flag. No labels wanted to release their material, so they simply created their own label to release not only their own material but the material of many other influential underground bands all over the country. Ian MacKaye’s Dischord is often cited as a model of success in the DIY community, having survived for over twenty years with less than twelve employees at any one time.

With the Internet now being a viable source for obtaining music, netlabels have emerged. Depending on the ideals of the net label, music files from the artists may be downloaded free of charge or for a fee that is paid via Paypal or other online payment system. Some of these labels also offer hard copy CDs in addition to direct download. Most net labels acknowledge the Creative Commons licensing system thus reserving certain rights for the artist. Digital Labels are the latest version of a ‘net’ label. Whereas ‘net’ labels were started as a free site, digital labels are more competition for the major record labels.

The new century brings the phenomenon of open-source or open-content record label. These are inspired by the free software and open source movements and the success of GNU/Linux.

In the mid-2000s, some music publishing companies began undertaking the work traditionally done by labels. The publisher Sony/ATV Music, for example, leveraged its connections within the Sony family to produce, record, distribute, and promote Elliott Yamin’s debut album under a dormant Sony-owned imprint, rather than waiting for a deal with a proper label. Uploaded by Roal Smeet.

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Roal Smeet Favorite Book Cannery Row Placed in Monterey

John Steinbeck is one of the best-known and most revered American literary figures. He won the Pulitzer Prize for his novel Grapes of Wrath (1939), highlighting the lives of migrant farm workers in the Salinas Valley, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. Seventeen of his works, including Cannery Row (1945), The Pearl (1947), and East of Eden (1955), were made into Hollywood movies.

John Steinbeck is one of the best-known and most revered American literary figures. He won the Pulitzer Prize for his novel Grapes of Wrath (1939), highlighting the lives of migrant farm workers in the Salinas Valley, and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. Seventeen of his works, including Cannery Row (1945), The Pearl (1947), and East of Eden (1955), were made into Hollywood movies.

Monterey County Beginnings
Steinbeck was born about 30 miles from Cannery Row in Salinas, California, on February 27, 1902. He graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and attended Stanford University, about 90 miles north of the Monterey Peninsula. He married his first wife, Carol Henning, in 1930. They lived in Pacific Grove next to Cannery Row, where much of the material for his books was gathered.

Cannery Row Characters
Steinbeck’s strong personal attachment to Monterey was perhaps inevitable. Living in Pacific Grove, in a house owned by his father, Steinbeck wrote stories spiced with the vibrant tales of cannery workers and roughnecks he knew.

Cannery Row ignited Steinbeck’s imagination and his affection for the colorful mix of people there influenced a number of stories and characters. Tortilla Flat (1935) received the California Commonwealth Club’s Gold Medal for best novel by a California author and marked a turning point in Steinbeck’s career.

Cannery Row (1945), one of Steinbeck’s best and most widely read fictional works, immortalized Cannery Row as a one-of-a-kind neighborhood of fish packing plants, bordellos, and flophouses, and made it the most famous street in America. Sweet Thursday, the sequel to Cannery Row, was published in 1954.

Steinbeck & Ed Ricketts
In 1930 Steinbeck met Ed Ricketts, an accomplished marine biologist who operated the Pacific Biological Laboratory at 800 Cannery Row. Ricketts was the inspiration for the character ‘Doc’ in Cannery Row, although he wasn’t called Doc in real life. Ricketts brought Steinbeck along on his outdoor adventures studying the biological mysteries of the “Great Tidal Pool” near Asilomar Beach, and on a voyage to the Sea of Cortez.

In 1948 Ed Ricketts was hit by a train after his Buick stalled on the tracks near Cannery Row. Today, the location of the train accident is memorialized with a bust of Ricketts at the street corner adjacent to the Monterey Plaza Hotel & Spa.

Steinbeck died on December 20, 1968, in New York City. His ashes were placed in the Garden of Memories Cemetery in Salinas.

For more information about John Steinbeck’s life and work, visit the National Steinbeck Center.

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Classical Music

Classical music is the art music produced in, or rooted in, the traditions of Western liturgical and secular music, encompassing a broad period from roughly the 11th century to present times. The central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, which is known as the common practice period. It should not be confused with the Classical Era.

European music is largely distinguished from many other non-European and popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 16th century. Western staff notation is used by composers to prescribe to the performer the pitch, speed, meter, individual rhythms and exact execution of a piece of music. This leaves less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, that are frequently heard in non-European art music and popular music.

The term “classical music” did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to “canonize” the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to “classical music” recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.

Characteristics
Given the extremely broad variety of forms, styles, genres, and historical periods generally perceived as being described by the term “classical music,” it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. Vague descriptions are plentiful, such as describing classical music as anything that “lasts a long time,” a statement made rather moot when one considers contemporary composers who are described as classical; or music that has certain instruments like violins, which are also found in other genres. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain.

Literature
The most outstanding and particular characteristic of classical music is that the repertoire tends to be written down. Composers and performers alike are typically highly literate in understanding notation. The written quality of the music has, in addition to preserving the works, led to a high level of complexity within them.

Instrumentation
The instruments used in most classical music were largely invented before the mid-19th century (often much earlier), and codified in the 18th and 19th centuries. They consist of the instruments found in an orchestra, together with a few other solo instruments (such as the piano, harpsichord, and organ). The symphony orchestra is the most widely known medium for classical music. The orchestra includes members of the string, woodwind, brass, and percussion families.

Electric instruments such as the electric guitar appear occasionally in the classical music of the 20th and 21st centuries. Both classical and popular musicians have experimented in recent decades with electronic instruments such as the synthesizer, electric and digital techniques such as the use of sampled or computer-generated sounds, and the sounds of instruments from other cultures such as the gamelan.

None of the bass instruments existed until the Renaissance. In Medieval music, instruments are divided in two categories: loud instruments for use outdoors or in church, and quieter instruments for indoor use. The Baroque orchestra consisted of flutes, oboes, horns and violins, occasionally with trumpets and timpani. Many instruments which are associated today with popular music used to have important roles in early classical music, such as bagpipes, vihuelas, hurdy-gurdies and some woodwind instruments. On the other hand, instruments such as the acoustic guitar, which used to be associated mainly with popular music, have gained prominence in classical music through the 19th and 20th centuries.

While equal temperament became gradually accepted as the dominant musical temperament during the 18th century, different historical temperaments are often used for music from earlier periods. For instance, music of the English Renaissance is often performed in meantone temperament. Keyboards almost all share a common layout (often called the piano keyboard).

Form
Whereas the majority of popular styles lend themselves to the song form, classical music can also take on the form of the concerto, symphony, sonata, opera, dance music, suite, étude, symphonic poem, and others.

Classical composers often aspire to imbue their music with a very complex relationship between its affective (emotional) content and the intellectual means by which it is achieved. Many of the most esteemed works of classical music make use of musical development, the process by which a musical idea or motif is repeated in different contexts or in altered form. The sonata form and fugue employ rigorous forms of musical development.
Technical execution

Along with a desire for composers to attain high technical achievement in writing their music, performers of classical music are faced with similar goals of technical mastery, as demonstrated by the proportionately high amount of schooling and private study most successful classical musicians have had when compared to “popular” genre musicians, and the large number of secondary schools, including conservatories, dedicated to the study of classical music. The only other genre in the Western world with comparable secondary education opportunities is jazz.

Complexity
Performance of classical music repertoire demands a significant level of technical mastery on the part of the musician; proficiency in sight-reading and ensemble playing, thorough understanding of tonal and harmonic principles, knowledge of performance practice, and a familiarity with the style/musical idiom inherent to a given period, composer or musical work are among the most essential of skills for the classically trained musician.

Works of classical repertoire often exhibit artistic complexity through the use of thematic development, phrasing, harmonization, modulation (change of key), texture, and, of course, musical form itself. Larger-scale compositional forms (such as that of the symphony, concerto, opera or oratorio, for example) usually represent a hierarchy of smaller units consisting of phrases, periods, sections, and movements. Musical analysis of a composition aims at achieving greater understanding of it, leading to more meaningful hearing and a greater appreciation of the composer’s style.

Society
Classical music regularly features as background music for movies, television programmes, advertisements and events. Nessun dorma from Giacomo Puccini’s opera Turandot for example was the theme tune for the 1990 FIFA World Cup.

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